Victoria Cross for Australia
The Victoria Cross for Australia is the pre-eminent award for acts of bravery in wartime and Australia's highest military honour.
It is awarded to persons who, in the presence of the enemy, display the most conspicuous gallantry; a daring or pre-eminent act of valour or self-sacrifice; or extreme devotion to duty.
The Victoria Cross was created by Queen Victoria in 1856 and made retrospective to 1854 to cover the period of the Crimean War.
Until the Victoria Cross for Australia was created in 1991, Australians were eligible for the Victoria Cross and other awards under the Imperial system of honours.
The Imperial Victoria Cross has been awarded to ninety six Australians. Ninety one received the Victoria Cross while serving with Australian forces and five Australians received the award while serving with South African and British units.
Australians were first recognised for their gallantry in the Boer War and more recently during the Vietnam War.
Australians have been awarded the Victoria Cross in the following conflicts:
- 6 in the Boer War 1899-1902
- 64 in World War I 1914-1918
- 2 in North Russia 1919
- 20 in World War II 1939-1945
- 4 in Vietnam 1962-1972
Nine of the crosses awarded in World War I were for Australians at Gallipoli.
The first award of the Victoria Cross for Australia was made in 2009 for action in Afghanistan.
The Victoria Cross for Australia was instituted in the Australian honours system by Letters Patent on 15 January 1991.
It replaces the British or Imperial Victoria Cross. Trooper Mark Donaldson VC was the first Australian to be honoured with the Victoria Cross for Australia on Friday 16 January 2009, followed by Corporal Benjamin Roberts-Smith VC MG on 23 January 2011 and Corporal Daniel Keighran VC on 1 November 2012.
Ninety nine Australians have been awarded the Victoria Cross. Ninety six Australians have been awarded the Imperial Victoria Cross and three Australians have been awarded the Victoria Cross for Australia.
The first Australian to be awarded the Imperial Victoria Cross was Captain Sir Neville Howse VC KCMG CB KStJ during the Boer War (1900). He also served in World War I and later as Commonwealth Minister for Health, Defence and Repatriation.
The last Australian to be awarded the Imperial Victoria Cross was Warrant Officer Keith Payne VC OAM for gallantry during the Vietnam War (24 May 1969). Under heavy enemy fire Payne instigated a daring rescue of more than forty men, many of them wounded, and led the party back to the battalion base.
Search the Australian Honours List for recipients of the Victoria Cross.
The Governor-General awards the Victoria Cross, with the approval of the Sovereign, on the recommendation of the Minister for Defence.
The Victoria Cross may be awarded posthumously.
The post-nominal entitlement for the Victoria Cross is VC.
A subsequent award of the Victoria Cross to the same person is made as a bar to the Cross. They are also entitled to the post-nominal VC and Bar.
The Victoria Cross is a Maltese Cross, cast in bronze from cannons captured during the Crimean War (1854-1856). There is sufficient metal for a number of new medals to be cast from these cannons. They are each handmade by Hancocks and Company (Jewellers) of London.
The obverse of the Victoria Cross bears a crowned lion standing on a royal crown. The words 'FOR VALOUR' are inscribed on a semi-circular scroll beneath the crown.
The reverse of the cross is engraved with the date of the act of bravery and the name, rank and unit of the recipient.
The suspension bar is decorated with laurel leaves and bears a 'V' from which the cross hangs.
The medal ribbon of the Victoria Cross is crimson.
The information on this page is available as a printable fact sheet.
- Victoria Cross for Australia - Fact Sheet - PDF 262KB | RTF 1MB
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